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48                        THE FATE OF MAN

the partisans of an authoritarian state* Liberalism
is exclusively a social philosophy:  the liberals
are social-minded and for them liberty means
only a form of political organization for society,
whereby society grants certain subjective rights
to its citizens.   Liberalism is a one-planed world-
concept :  it fails to see that man belongs to two
planes of being.    This means that there is not
only such a thing as freedom in society, but
freedom from society as well, a freedom which is
based on something quite other than society.
The so-called subjective rights of man do not
arise from society.   Freedom of the spirit does
not depend on any kind of social organization.
Liberty is a limitation of the authority of society
over personality, the power of the State over man.
It implies no specific form of organization, social
or national, but only that man belongs to another
plane of being, to the realm of the spirit. Liberty
is spirit and the spirit is liberty, and just because
of this, liberty is reduced and diluted in the degree
to which it lowers itself to the plane of the
material.   Maximum liberty exists for spiritual
life, for human thought and conscience, for the
intimate  life   of the  personality.   Liberty  in
political life is already a reduced and imperfect
form.   And the minimum liberty should be given
in economic life, since this is nearest to the
material and furthest from the spirit,